Ayn Rand


Welcome to the captivating world of Anthem by Ayn Rand! 📚✨ Set in a dystopian future where individualism is forbidden, and society exists in a collective state, this novella presents a stark examination of collectivism vs. individualism through its thought-provoking narrative. Ayn Rand, a Russian-American writer and philosopher, is renowned for her philosophy of Objectivism and her celebration of the individual’s right to live for their own sake. Published in 1938, Anthem stands out as a significant piece in the genre of dystopian literature, offering a deep dive into the consequences of a society that completely eradicates personal identity and freedom. Join us as we explore the depths of Rand’s visionary work, a tale that resonates with themes of freedom, identity, and the importance of the self in a world that demands conformity. 🌍💡

Plot Summary

Anthem unfolds in a future dystopian society that has eradicated all forms of individuality, referring to people by numbers instead of names and enforcing strict rules that ensure no one stands out or acts upon personal desires. The story is narrated by Equality 7-2521 — a man who dares to defy societal norms by pursuing knowledge and scientific discovery, activities that are forbidden in his world.

Exposition — The novel opens with Equality 7-2521 writing in secret, something that is forbidden in his society. He describes his life in a world where the word “I” is unknown, and everything is done for the sake of the collective.

Rising Action — Equality 7-2521 discovers a tunnel from the Unmentionable Times and begins conducting scientific experiments, an act of personal defiance. He falls in love with Liberty 5-3000, a woman he names “The Golden One,” further breaking the rules of his society.

Climax — Equality 7-2521 presents his discovery of electricity to the World Council of Scholars, believing it will benefit society. However, the Council rejects his discovery, viewing it as a threat to the collective society.

Falling Action — Realizing that there is no place for him in society, Equality 7-2521 flees into the Uncharted Forest, pursued by Liberty 5-3000 who chooses to join him.

Resolution — In the forest, they discover an abandoned house from the Unmentionable Times. Here, Equality 7-2521 and Liberty 5-3000 embrace their individuality, renaming themselves Prometheus and Gaea, respectively. They vow to build a new society based on individual freedom and personal achievement.

Through Anthem, Rand showcases a journey of self-discovery and rebellion against a collectivist world, emphasizing the importance of individual thought and freedom.

Character Analysis

In Anthem, Ayn Rand introduces us to a cast of characters who, through their experiences and actions, provide insight into the themes of individualism, freedom, and identity. Here’s a closer look at the main characters:

  • Equality 7-2521 — A man with a deep curiosity and intelligence that sets him apart from his peers. Despite living in a society that suppresses individuality, he seeks knowledge and truth, leading to his discovery of electricity. His journey represents the struggle of the individual against the collective, culminating in his rejection of society’s constraints and the adoption of a new identity as Prometheus.
  • Liberty 5-3000 — A woman Equality 7-2521 falls in love with, defying the laws of their society. She is strong, beautiful, and similarly seeks to understand her individuality. Her willingness to follow Equality 7-2521 into the Uncharted Forest signifies her own rebellion against the collective. She adopts the name Gaea, symbolizing her role as the mother of a new beginning.
  • The World Council of Scholars — Represents the oppressive nature of the collective society in Anthem. Their rejection of Equality 7-2521’s discovery of electricity showcases their fear of change and individual achievement, enforcing conformity over progress.

Here’s a summary table of the character analysis:

Equality 7-2521 (Prometheus)Curious, intelligent, defiantSeeks knowledge and freedom, desires to understand the world around himTransforms from a conforming citizen to an individualist hero, embracing his identity as Prometheus
Liberty 5-3000 (Gaea)Strong, determined, supportiveDesires to understand her individuality, supports Equality 7-2521Moves from a society-bound individual to an independent figure, adopting the identity of Gaea
The World Council of ScholarsDogmatic, fearful, oppressiveMaintains control and conformity, suppresses individual achievementsRemains static, symbolizing the unchanging and oppressive nature of collectivist societies

Through these characters, Rand explores the themes of identity, individualism, and rebellion, demonstrating the importance of self-discovery and the pursuit of one’s values and beliefs.

Themes and Symbols

Anthem by Ayn Rand is rich with themes and symbols that explore the essence of individualism, the value of self-discovery, and the dangers of a collectivist society. Let’s dive into some of the major themes and symbols present in the book.


  • Individualism vs. Collectivism — At its core, Anthem pits the sanctity of the individual against the oppressive nature of collectivism. Rand champions the idea that the pursuit of one’s own happiness and intellectual freedom is fundamental to human nature, contrasting sharply with the society depicted in the book that suppresses individual identity.
  • The Importance of Knowledge and Learning — Equality 7-2521’s quest for knowledge and the truth represents the theme that learning and intellectual curiosity are innate human traits stifled by oppressive governments. His discoveries and the ultimate rejection he faces underscore the conflict between enlightenment and ignorance.
  • The Role of Free Will and Choice — The characters’ journey towards self-discovery emphasizes the importance of free will and personal choice, suggesting that the capacity to choose one’s path is essential to defining one’s identity.


  • The Uncharted Forest — Represents the unknown and the freedom to explore one’s own mind and beliefs. For Equality 7-2521 and Liberty 5-3000, it becomes a place of refuge and self-discovery, away from the constraints of their society.
  • Light and Electricity — The light bulb discovered by Equality 7-2521 symbolizes enlightenment, innovation, and the power of the individual mind. It stands in stark contrast to the darkness of the collective society, both literally and metaphorically.
  • The Names Prometheus and Gaea — By choosing these names, the characters align themselves with figures of creation and rebellion from mythology. Prometheus, who brought fire (knowledge) to humanity against the will of Zeus (the collective), and Gaea, the mother of Earth and life, symbolize the birth of a new society based on individual values and freedom.

Through these themes and symbols, Anthem presents a compelling argument for the importance of individualism and the dangers posed by a society that prioritizes collectivism over the individual. The novella encourages readers to consider the value of their own identities and the rights to think and act freely.

Writing Style and Tone

Ayn Rand’s Anthem is a powerful exploration of dystopian society, characterized by its unique writing style and tone, which play crucial roles in conveying the novel’s themes and enhancing its atmosphere. Let’s delve into these aspects:

Writing Style

  • First-person plural narrative: Initially, Rand employs the first-person plural pronoun “we” instead of “I” to reflect the collectivist society in which individual identity is erased. This stylistic choice immerses the reader in the oppressive atmosphere of the world Rand depicts, making the eventual transition to first-person singular profoundly impactful.
  • Simplistic and direct: The language used in Anthem is straightforward and devoid of any unnecessary embellishments. This clarity and simplicity mirror the starkness of the world Equality 7-2521 inhabits, as well as his clear and rational thought process.
  • Symbolic imagery: Rand frequently uses light and darkness to symbolize knowledge and ignorance, respectively. This imagery reinforces the novel’s themes and the contrast between the protagonist’s enlightenment and society’s stagnation.


  • Clinical and detached: The tone at the beginning of the novel mirrors the emotionless and collective society from which the protagonist hails. It’s clinical, lacking in individual emotion or personal insight, which serves to highlight the absence of personal freedom and individuality.
  • Evolving towards inspirational and defiant: As the narrative progresses and Equality 7-2521 begins to embrace his individuality, the tone shifts to become more passionate, inspirational, and defiant. This change reflects his growing awareness of his own worth and his rejection of societal norms.
  • Reflective and hopeful: In the latter parts of the novel, especially as Equality 7-2521 discovers the meaning of “I”, the tone becomes reflective, focusing on the potential of the individual and the hope for a future where people can live freely as individuals.

Rand’s deliberate use of writing style and tone in Anthem not only enhances the storytelling but also deeply embeds the reader in the psychological journey of the protagonist. The evolution from a collective to an individual perspective not only marks the character’s development but also serves as a call to the reader to consider the value of individualism and personal freedom.

Literary Devices Used in Anthem

In “Anthem,” Ayn Rand masterfully employs a variety of literary devices to enrich the narrative, underscore the novel’s themes, and deepen the reader’s engagement. Here are the top 10 literary devices used in “Anthem,” highlighted for their significance in the storytelling process:

1. Symbolism —

Symbols are pervasive throughout “Anthem,” with objects and names acting as representations of larger ideas. For instance, the light bulb symbolizes the enlightenment and power of individual thought, while the names Prometheus and Gaea symbolize rebirth and the potential for a new society based on individual values.

2. Metaphor —

Rand uses metaphors to draw comparisons between concepts without using “like” or “as.” One prominent metaphor is the society itself, representing the suppression of the individual for the collective, akin to a prison of the mind.

3. Allusion —

The novel is rich with allusions, particularly to Greek mythology. The choice of names for the protagonists in the end, Prometheus and Gaea, alludes to figures of creation, rebellion, and the birth of a new era, reinforcing the themes of individualism and rebirth.

4. Allegory —

“Anthem” can be seen as an allegory for Rand’s critique of collectivist societies. The entire narrative functions as a warning against the dangers of suppressing individual rights in favor of the collective.

5. Irony —

The use of irony is evident in the society’s portrayal of itself as a utopia, while in reality, it is a dystopian nightmare that stifles creativity, intelligence, and individuality.

6. Foreshadowing —

Rand subtly uses foreshadowing to hint at future events and revelations, such as Equality 7-2521’s eventual rejection of society’s norms and his discovery of the word “I,” which signifies his embrace of individualism.

7. Imagery —

The vivid imagery in “Anthem,” especially the contrasting use of light and darkness, effectively conveys the stark differences between enlightenment and ignorance, freedom and oppression.

8. Personification —

Inanimate objects, such as the society and the forest, are often given life-like qualities. The society is portrayed as a living, breathing entity that demands conformity, while the forest represents a living, welcoming space for individual thought and freedom.

9. Repetition —

The repetition of certain phrases and concepts, such as the collective pronoun “we,” emphasizes the oppressive nature of the society and the absence of individuality. The eventual shift to “I” marks a pivotal change in the protagonist’s development and the narrative’s focus on individualism.

10. Juxtaposition —

Rand employs juxtaposition to highlight the contrasts between individualism and collectivism, knowledge and ignorance, as well as the protagonist’s inner conflict and his society’s expectations.

These literary devices are integral to the depth and resonance of “Anthem,” allowing Rand to craft a compelling narrative that explores complex themes of identity, freedom, and the role of the individual within society.

Literary Devices Examples

In Anthem, Ayn Rand’s use of literary devices is not just about stylistic flourishes but serves to deepen the thematic currents and character development within the novella. Below, we explore examples of how these devices are employed effectively across the text.


Light BulbEquality 7-2521’s invention of the light bulb.Represents knowledge, enlightenment, and the power of individual thought against the backdrop of a society that enforces darkness, both literally and figuratively.
The Uncharted ForestThe forest surrounding the city where the story takes place.Symbolizes the unknown and is associated with individual choice and freedom. It stands in stark contrast to the controlled and oppressive city.
Names: Prometheus & GaeaThe protagonists choose these names for themselves.Reflects their rebirth and the start of a new society based on individual values. These names draw from mythology to symbolize creation, rebellion, and the nurturing of life and knowledge.


Society as a PrisonThe collective society of Anthem.The society functions as a metaphorical prison for the mind and spirit, stifling individual thought and creativity, and enforcing conformity.


Greek Mythology: PrometheusEquality 7-2521 renaming himself Prometheus.Alludes to the Greek Titan who defied the gods to bring fire (knowledge) to humanity, symbolizing defiance against oppressive forces and the enlightenment of the individual.


The Collective SocietyThe entire setup of Anthem‘s society.Serves as an allegory for Rand’s critique of collectivism, illustrating the dangers and ethical bankruptcy of a society that prioritizes the group over the individual.


Utopia as DystopiaThe society’s belief in its perfection.The irony lies in the society’s view of itself as a utopia, while it is actually a dystopia that suppresses freedom and individuality.


Equality’s CuriosityEarly signs of Equality 7-2521’s curiosity.Foreshadows his eventual break from society and discovery of the self, highlighting his innate desire for knowledge and individuality.


Light vs. DarknessThe contrast between the light bulb and the city’s darkness.Creates a vivid picture of the struggle between enlightenment and ignorance, serving as a backdrop to the protagonist’s quest for knowledge.


Society as a Living EntityThe portrayal of society’s demands and norms.Gives life to the abstract concept of society, emphasizing its oppressive and demanding nature.


Use of “We”The consistent use of “we” until the discovery of “I”.Emphasizes the collectivist mindset enforced by society and the absence of individual identity.


Individualism vs. CollectivismThe contrast between Equality 7-2521’s beliefs and society’s laws.Highlights the conflict between the protagonist’s growing sense of self and the collective identity enforced by his society.

These examples underscore how Ayn Rand utilizes literary devices in “Anthem” not merely for embellishment but as integral elements that contribute to the novella’s exploration of themes such as individuality, freedom, and the perils of collectivism.

Anthem – FAQs

Q: What is the main theme of Anthem by Ayn Rand?
A: The main theme of Anthem is the conflict between individualism and collectivism. Ayn Rand explores the importance of self-discovery, the sanctity of the individual, and the dangers of a society that suppresses individuality in favor of a collective identity.

Q: Who is the protagonist of Anthem, and what makes him unique?
A: The protagonist of Anthem is Equality 7-2521, later known as Prometheus. What makes him unique is his unyielding curiosity and intelligence, traits that lead him to question the society’s norms and eventually discover the concept of individuality and the forbidden word “I.”

Q: What is the significance of the names Prometheus and Gaea in Anthem?
A: The names Prometheus and Gaea, chosen by Equality 7-2521 and Liberty 5-3000, respectively, are significant because they symbolize rebirth, enlightenment, and the creation of a new society. Prometheus is a figure from Greek mythology who defied the gods to bring fire (knowledge) to humanity, while Gaea is the personification of Earth and motherhood, representing the nurturing of life and new beginnings.

Q: How does Ayn Rand view collectivism in Anthem?
A: Ayn Rand views collectivism critically in Anthem, depicting it as an oppressive and dehumanizing system that erases individual identity, stifles creativity, and suppresses personal freedom. Through the dystopian society in the novella, Rand illustrates the dangers and moral bankruptcy of prioritizing the collective over the individual.

Q: What is the role of the Uncharted Forest in Anthem?
A: The Uncharted Forest in Anthem serves as a symbol of the unknown and a place of refuge for those who reject the collectivist society. It represents freedom, individual choice, and the possibility of a life beyond the constraints of the oppressive social order. For Equality 7-2521 and Liberty 5-3000, it becomes a setting for self-discovery and the start of a new life based on their values.

Q: How does Anthem end?
A: Anthem ends with Equality 7-2521 (Prometheus) and Liberty 5-3000 (Gaea) living freely in the Uncharted Forest, having discovered an abandoned house from the past. They plan to build a new society based on individual freedom and personal achievement. Equality 7-2521 also discovers the lost concept of the self, symbolized by the word “I,” marking a new beginning for humanity based on the recognition of individual worth and rights.


QuestionABCDCorrect Answer
What is the society in Anthem based on?DemocracyTheocracyCollectivismAnarchyC
Who does Equality 7-2521 fall in love with?Unity 5-2821Liberty 5-3000Fraternity 2-5503Solidarity 9-6347B
What discovery does Equality 7-2521 make?Steam engineElectricityGunpowderThe printing pressB
What is the forbidden word in Anthem?WeThemIUsC
What new names do Equality 7-2521 and Liberty 5-3000 choose for themselves?Adam and EvePrometheus and GaeaZeus and HeraApollo and ArtemisB
Where do Equality 7-2521 and Liberty 5-3000 plan to build their new society?In the Uncharted ForestOn a remote islandIn the ruins of the old cityOn top of a mountainA
What symbolizes enlightenment and knowledge in Anthem?The sunA candleA light bulbFireC
What is the main theme of Anthem?The battle between good and evilThe struggle for powerThe conflict between individualism and collectivismThe importance of technologyC
Why is Equality 7-2521’s invention rejected by the Council?It threatens the social orderIt is considered uselessIt is too complicatedIt is dangerousA
What does the Uncharted Forest represent in Anthem?Fear and dangerHope and renewalConfusion and chaosIsolation and lonelinessB

This quiz is designed to test your comprehension of Ayn Rand’s “Anthem” and its themes, characters, and plot. Each question focuses on key aspects of the novella, providing a broad overview of the story’s most important elements.


Spot the Literary Device
Read the following paragraph from “Anthem” and identify the literary devices used. List your answers below, followed by a separator and then the correct answers.

“We stood still; for the first time we knew fear, and then pain. And we stood still that we might not spill this pain more precious than pleasure. Then we knew we could lie no longer, and we stood up, calling upon the darkness to hide us, calling upon the night to cloak our escape. We stole through the City like a shadow, and we looked back, and we knew we had parted from our brothers forever.”

Your Answers: 1.

Correct Answers:

  1. Personification – “calling upon the darkness to hide us, calling upon the night to cloak our escape” suggests giving human qualities to darkness and night, as if they could actively conceal someone.
  2. Imagery – The detailed description evokes a vivid picture of the scene, particularly the feeling of fear, the act of standing still, and the act of escaping under the cover of darkness.
  3. Juxtaposition – The comparison between “pain more precious than pleasure” contrasts two typically opposing experiences, emphasizing the protagonist’s unique situation and internal conflict.

This exercise encourages readers to delve deeper into Rand’s use of language, illustrating how literary devices enhance the narrative and emotional depth of “Anthem.”