Amusing Ourselves to Death: Public Discourse in the Age of Show Business

By Neil Postman


Welcome to a deep dive into “Amusing Ourselves to Death: Public Discourse in the Age of Show Business” 🎭, a groundbreaking book by Neil Postman that has captivated readers and thinkers alike since its release in 1985. Born in 1931, Postman was an American author, educator, media theorist, and cultural critic, well-known for his work in the field of media studies and his critique of technology’s impact on society.

“Amusing Ourselves to Death” is a non-fiction book that belongs to the genre of media theory and cultural critique. In this insightful read, Postman examines the shift in the nature of public discourse—how it has been transformed by the advent of television and its emphasis on entertainment, often at the expense of serious, rational public debate. Postman’s analysis is both a historical journey and a warning about the decline of the quality of our public discourse.

In an era where television was becoming the centerpiece of American homes, Postman’s observations were both timely and prescient. His work draws a clear line between the mediums through which we consume information and the quality of the discourse that results. By analyzing the transformation from a print-based culture to a visually dominated one, Postman sheds light on the profound effects this shift has on the way we think, learn, and communicate.

So, whether you’re a student, a scholar, or just a curious mind looking to understand the intricate relationship between media, culture, and society, “Amusing Ourselves to Death” offers a compelling exploration that is as relevant today as it was in the mid-80s. Let’s embark on this journey to dissect Postman’s arguments and understand the significance of his warnings in our current age of digital media and endless entertainment. 📚💡

Plot Summary

“Amusing Ourselves to Death: Public Discourse in the Age of Show Business” by Neil Postman doesn’t follow a traditional narrative structure with a plot, as it is a work of media theory and cultural critique rather than a fictional story. However, it’s structured around a central argument that unfolds through various analyses and examples. Here’s a breakdown of how Postman’s argument develops, akin to the components of a story’s plot:

Exposition — Postman sets the stage by discussing the profound effects that different communication mediums have had on society, from the written word to the telegraph and finally to television. He introduces the idea that each medium shapes not only the nature of the discourse but also the societal norms and values.

Rising Action — As the book progresses, Postman delves deeper into the comparison between the Age of Typography (the time when printed matter was the primary means of communication) and the Age of Show Business (dominated by television). He argues that television has transformed public discourse into mere entertainment, diluting serious and rational debate.

Climax — The climax of Postman’s argument is the revelation that television’s dominance has led to a decline in the ability of the public to engage in critical thinking and reasoned argumentation. He illustrates how television news, political discourse, and even education have been reduced to forms of entertainment, resulting in a populace more amused than informed.

Falling Action — Postman then discusses the consequences of this shift, including the decline in political discourse’s seriousness, where politicians are more concerned with their image and how they are perceived on television than with substantive issues.

Resolution — In the concluding sections, Postman calls for a reevaluation of how society engages with television and other forms of media. He advocates for a return to a more print-based form of discourse that favors depth, rationality, and critical engagement over superficial entertainment.

Throughout “Amusing Ourselves to Death,” Postman’s analysis is not just a critique of television but a broader warning about the dangers of any media that prioritizes entertainment over substance. Although the book doesn’t follow a plot in the traditional sense, its structured argument leads readers through a journey of understanding the impact of media on public discourse and society’s intellectual capacities.

Character Analysis

Since “Amusing Ourselves to Death: Public Discourse in the Age of Show Business” by Neil Postman is a non-fiction work focused on media critique rather than a narrative story, it doesn’t feature characters in the conventional sense. However, we can analyze the “characters” in the form of the various entities and concepts Postman discusses as key players in the evolution of public discourse. These “characters” are the mediums of communication themselves, each with its motivations, impacts, and developments.

  • Television — Television, the central “character” in Postman’s critique, is portrayed as a dominant medium that transforms serious public discourse into entertainment. Its motivation lies in capturing and retaining viewer attention, often at the expense of depth and rationality. Television’s impact is seen in the shift towards a society where entertainment value trumps the importance of being informed.
  • Print Culture — Print culture represents the era of rationality, depth, and active engagement. It is depicted as a medium that encourages critical thinking and a well-informed public. Its motivation is the dissemination of ideas through in-depth, linear, and argumentative structures, fostering a society capable of complex thought and reasoned debate.
  • The Public — While not a medium, the public or the audience plays a crucial role as the receiver and interpreter of information disseminated by various media. The transformation of the public from active readers to passive viewers illustrates a shift in societal values and cognitive abilities, driven by the changing nature of the media landscape.
  • Educators and Politicians — These groups are treated as secondary “characters” who adapt to the demands of the dominant medium. Their roles evolve from being purveyors of depth and substance to performers who must entertain to capture and retain public interest. This shift illustrates the broader societal changes enforced by television’s dominance.

Character Analysis Summary:

TelevisionTo entertain and retain viewer attentionTransforms public discourse into entertainmentBecomes the dominant medium, overshadowing print
Print CultureTo disseminate ideas and encourage critical thinkingFosters depth, rationality, and informed publicGradually overshadowed by television
The PublicTo consume informationShifts from active participants to passive viewersBecomes more entertained, less informed
Educators and PoliticiansTo engage and influence the publicAdapt to performative roles to suit televisionMove from substance to style in the age of show business

In sum, while “Amusing Ourselves to Death” doesn’t analyze characters in the traditional literary sense, it critically examines the roles and impacts of different communication mediums and societal entities in the context of public discourse. This analysis reveals a profound shift in societal values, behaviors, and cognitive engagement, driven by the evolution of media from print to television.

Themes and Symbols

“Amusing Ourselves to Death: Public Discourse in the Age of Show Business” is rich with themes and symbols that Neil Postman uses to underscore his critique of media and its impact on society. Here’s a look at some of the major themes and symbols present in the book:

  • The Medium is the Metaphor — This theme suggests that the medium through which information is conveyed shapes and controls the scale and form of human association and action. Postman argues that how we receive information is just as important, if not more so, than the content of the information itself. The medium (e.g., print, television) influences our perception and understanding, essentially becoming a metaphor for how we see the world.
  • The Disappearance of Childhood — Postman posits that television blurs the lines between adulthood and childhood, exposing children to adult themes and reducing the mystique of adulthood. This theme explores the erosion of the distinction between these two life stages, suggesting that television’s omnipresence accelerates children’s exposure to life’s complexities, thus hastening the end of childhood innocence.
  • The Age of Show Business — This symbolizes the transformation of public life into entertainment. Every aspect of society, including news, politics, and religion, is presented in a manner designed to entertain, often at the expense of seriousness and truth. This theme reflects the book’s central argument about the detrimental effects of entertainment on our capacity for critical thought.
  • The Peeping Tom — This symbol reflects television’s role in promoting voyeurism, allowing viewers to observe others’ lives without interaction or engagement. It represents the passive consumption of content, which Postman argues diminishes active, meaningful participation in society.
  • The Typographic Mind vs. The Graphic Mind — These contrasting symbols represent the shift from a society that values depth, coherence, and rationality (typographic) to one that prioritizes visual stimulation and fragmented information (graphic). Postman uses this contrast to illustrate the loss of critical thinking and analytical skills as society moves further away from print-based media.
  • The Information-to-Action Ratio — This theme explores the imbalance created by television, where viewers are inundated with information but have little means to act upon it. It symbolizes the paralysis that can result from being overly informed about issues that one cannot influence, leading to apathy and disengagement.
  • The News as Entertainment — This symbolizes the transformation of news from a medium for informing the public to one primarily concerned with attracting viewers. It reflects the broader theme of the trivialization of discourse in the Age of Show Business, where the gravitas of news is lost amidst the need to entertain.

These themes and symbols are central to Postman’s critique, illustrating his concerns about the impact of television and entertainment on public discourse, individual cognition, and societal values. They underscore the book’s warning about the dangers of valuing entertainment over substance and the consequences this preference has on our ability to think critically and engage meaningfully with the world.

Writing Style and Tone

Neil Postman’s “Amusing Ourselves to Death: Public Discourse in the Age of Show Business” is characterized by a distinctive writing style and tone that play critical roles in conveying its message. Through his approach, Postman engages readers, provoking thought and reflection on the serious issues of media influence and public discourse. Here’s a breakdown of the key aspects of Postman’s style and tone:

  • Conversational and Accessible — Despite dealing with complex media theories and cultural criticism, Postman’s prose remains engaging and understandable. He avoids dense academic jargon, making his arguments accessible to a broad audience. This approach invites readers into a conversation, encouraging them to ponder their own experiences with media.
  • Illustrative and Anecdotal — Postman frequently uses anecdotes and historical examples to illustrate his points. This not only makes his arguments more relatable but also provides a concrete foundation for his theoretical assertions. For instance, he draws comparisons between the Lincoln-Douglas debates and the present-day political discourse to highlight the shift in public engagement and the quality of argumentation.
  • Critical yet Humorous — There’s a subtle humor in Postman’s critique, even as he addresses serious concerns about media’s impact on culture and society. His wit is evident in the way he phrases his observations, making the critique of our media-saturated environment not just a scholarly analysis but also an enjoyable read.
  • Provocative and Persuasive — Postman’s writing is designed to provoke thought and encourage self-reflection among his readers. He presents his arguments in a manner that persuades without being dogmatic, leading readers to question and reconsider their own media consumption habits and the broader societal implications.
  • Reflective and Forewarning — The tone throughout the book is reflective, marked by Postman’s concern for the future of public discourse and society’s intellectual capacities. He forewarns about the dangers of entertainment overtaking serious communication, urging readers to be more critical of the media they consume.

Key Highlights of Postman’s Style and Tone:

  • Uses clear and engaging language to make complex ideas accessible.
  • Employs anecdotes and historical examples for illustration and persuasion.
  • Balances critical analysis with subtle humor.
  • Provokes thought and self-reflection without being dogmatic.
  • Reflects a deep concern for the impact of media on society, serving both as a critique and a warning.

Through his distinctive writing style and tone, Neil Postman succeeds in making “Amusing Ourselves to Death” not only an important work of media criticism but also an engaging and thought-provoking read. His approach allows readers to critically engage with the content, reflecting on the profound implications of his arguments for our society and ourselves.

Literary Devices used in Amusing Ourselves to Death: Public Discourse in the Age of Show Business

Neil Postman’s “Amusing Ourselves to Death” is not only a compelling critique of media and public discourse but also a work rich in literary devices that enhance its arguments and engage the reader. Here are the top 10 literary devices Postman employs:

  1. Analogy — Postman frequently uses analogies to draw comparisons between seemingly disparate concepts, making complex ideas more accessible and engaging. For example, he likens the shift from print-based to image-based communication to the difference between speaking and dancing, emphasizing the loss of substance in favor of style.
  2. Hyperbole — Exaggeration is used to emphasize the drastic change in society’s communication methods and its consequences, highlighting the severity of the issue in a way that mere description cannot.
  3. Irony — Postman employs irony to critique the contradictions within media, particularly television. He points out how television seeks to inform but ends up entertaining, thereby undermining its own goals.
  4. Metaphor — The book itself is titled after a metaphor, where “Amusing Ourselves to Death” suggests that entertainment has become a lethal distraction from more serious, life-affirming activities. This metaphor runs throughout the book, underscoring its central argument.
  5. Allusion — Postman alludes to historical, cultural, and literary figures and events to provide context and authority to his arguments. These references enrich the text and anchor his critique in a broader intellectual tradition.
  6. Parallelism — He uses parallel structure to draw comparisons between different historical periods of media influence, creating a rhythm that reinforces his message and aids in the retention of complex ideas.
  7. Personification — Media and technology are often personified, giving them agency and character. This device helps readers conceptualize abstract concepts and understand the impacts of media as active rather than passive.
  8. Rhetorical Questions — Postman uses rhetorical questions to engage the reader directly and provoke thought, encouraging readers to critically assess their own media consumption habits and the cultural implications thereof.
  9. Anecdote — By incorporating anecdotes, Postman illustrates his points in a relatable and often memorable way, grounding theoretical arguments in real-world examples.
  10. Contrast — The contrast between the “Age of Exposition” (print culture) and the “Age of Show Business” (television culture) is a recurring theme, used to highlight the decline in depth, discourse, and understanding in public communication.

Each of these literary devices plays a crucial role in developing Postman’s critique, enhancing the book’s readability, and ensuring that its arguments resonate deeply with the reader. Through skilled use of these techniques, Postman crafts a work that is not only intellectually stimulating but also highly engaging.

Literary Devices Examples

Here we provide examples and explanations for each of the top 10 literary devices used in Neil Postman’s “Amusing Ourselves to Death: Public Discourse in the Age of Show Business,” showcasing how they contribute to the book’s impact and readability.


  1. Example: Comparing the shift from print-based to image-based communication to the difference between speaking and dancing.
  • Explanation: This analogy highlights the loss of substance and depth in public discourse as society moves from a reliance on written and spoken words to visual images, emphasizing how critical, nuanced communication is being replaced by style and entertainment.


  1. Example: Suggesting that television has led to a cultural ‘death.’
  • Explanation: This hyperbole underlines the severity of television’s impact on society, arguing that it has fundamentally altered and degraded the quality of public discourse and individual thought.


  1. Example: Television’s aim to inform the public while primarily entertaining them.
  • Explanation: The irony here critiques the paradox within television media, where the purported goal of informing the populace is often overshadowed by the need to entertain, leading to a diluted and superficial engagement with important topics.


  1. Example: The book’s title, “Amusing Ourselves to Death.”
  • Explanation: This metaphor conveys the idea that society’s preoccupation with entertainment, largely through television, is detrimental to its wellbeing, suggesting that this obsession is as dangerous as physical threats to survival.


  1. Example: References to historical figures and intellectual traditions.
  • Explanation: These allusions place Postman’s arguments within a broader cultural and historical context, lending authority and depth to his critique of contemporary media practices.


  1. Example: Drawing parallels between different eras of media influence on society.
  • Explanation: This literary device helps readers see the continuity and change in media’s impact on society over time, reinforcing the book’s arguments about the evolving nature of public discourse.


  1. Example: Giving media and technology agency and character.
  • Explanation: Personification makes abstract concepts more relatable and understandable, allowing readers to grasp the significant, active role media plays in shaping human thought and culture.

Rhetorical Questions

  1. Example: Asking readers to consider their own media consumption habits.
  • Explanation: These questions engage readers directly, prompting them to reflect critically on the ways in which media influences their perceptions and behaviors.


  1. Example: Real-world examples illustrating points about media’s impact.
  • Explanation: Anecdotes make theoretical arguments more concrete and memorable, grounding Postman’s critique in everyday experiences and observations.


  1. Example: The juxtaposition of the “Age of Exposition” with the “Age of Show Business.”
  • Explanation: This contrast vividly illustrates the decline in public discourse’s depth and quality, highlighting the shift from a culture that valued reasoned, linear argumentation to one that prioritizes visual stimulation and entertainment.

Through these literary devices, Neil Postman enriches “Amusing Ourselves to Death,” making it not only a powerful critique of media and culture but also a compelling and accessible read.

Amusing Ourselves to Death: Public Discourse in the Age of Show Business – FAQs

What is the main argument of Neil Postman’s “Amusing Ourselves to Death”?

  • Neil Postman argues that television and the shift towards visual media have transformed public discourse and communication from a serious, rational exchange into mere entertainment. This change has detrimental effects on our ability to engage in critical thinking and meaningful discussion about important societal issues.

How does Postman compare the influence of television to that of print media?

  • Postman suggests that print media, such as books and newspapers, encourage a culture of reading, critical thinking, and active engagement. In contrast, television promotes passive consumption, prioritizing entertainment over depth and rationality, leading to a decline in the public’s ability to process complex information.

What does Postman mean by the term “the Age of Show Business”?

  • The “Age of Show Business” refers to the era in which entertainment values have infiltrated all forms of public communication, including news, politics, and education. In this age, the appeal to emotions and entertainment often overshadows the importance of conveying substantive, meaningful content.

Can “Amusing Ourselves to Death” be applied to the digital age and social media?

  • While Postman’s book focuses on television, its principles can be extended to the digital age and social media. The fragmentation of information, the emphasis on visual content, and the prioritization of entertainment over depth in digital platforms mirror the concerns Postman raised about television.

How does Postman’s work relate to the concept of “infotainment”?

  • “Infotainment” blends information and entertainment, a trend that Postman criticizes for undermining the quality of public discourse. He argues that when news and educational content are presented in an entertaining manner, they lose their ability to foster critical thinking and informed citizenship.

What are some of the societal consequences Postman foresees due to the shift towards entertainment in public discourse?

  • Postman warns of several consequences, including a decline in political and civic engagement, erosion of critical thinking skills, and the blurring of the line between serious and trivial issues. This shift towards entertainment, he argues, leads to a less informed public, more susceptible to manipulation.

Does Postman offer any solutions to the problems he identifies?

  • While Postman primarily focuses on diagnosing the problem, he does hint at solutions, such as advocating for a greater emphasis on print-based media, fostering a culture of reading and critical engagement, and encouraging the public to critically assess the impact of media consumption on their understanding of the world.


QuestionABCDCorrect Answer
What is the primary concern Neil Postman addresses in “Amusing Ourselves to Death”?The decline of reading in societyThe impact of television on public discourseThe rise of digital mediaThe history of entertainmentB
According to Postman, how does television change the way information is presented?It emphasizes depth and analysisIt prioritizes speed over accuracyIt transforms serious content into entertainmentIt enhances the audience’s ability to think criticallyC
What does Postman mean by “the Age of Show Business”?A period when movies dominate cultureAn era where entertainment values infiltrate all forms of public communicationA historical stage focusing on theaterThe golden age of television dramasB
How does Postman compare the influence of television to print media on public discourse?Television enhances public discoursePrint media encourages passive consumptionTelevision promotes passive consumption and entertainment over depthPrint media is less influential than televisionC
What solution does Postman suggest to address the issues raised in his book?Increasing television watching timeFocusing more on digital mediaEncouraging a return to print-based media and critical engagementEliminating television from societyC
What literary device is prominently used by Postman to strengthen his arguments?MetaphorOnomatopoeiaSimileAlliterationA
In “Amusing Ourselves to Death,” how does the concept of “infotainment” relate to Postman’s critique?It is seen as a positive evolution of information disseminationIt exemplifies the blending of information and entertainment, which Postman criticizesIt is unrelated to his critiqueIt is suggested as a solution to the issues he identifiesB
What societal consequence does Postman foresee due to the shift towards entertainment in public discourse?Increased political engagementEnhanced critical thinking skillsDecline in political and civic engagementMore accurate news reportingC
Which era does Postman compare to “the Age of Show Business” to highlight the shift in public discourse?The Age of EnlightenmentThe Age of TypographyThe Industrial AgeThe Digital AgeB
What does Postman suggest is lost in the transition from print to television-based culture?Entertainment valueVisual appealDepth, rationality, and active engagementTechnological advancementC


Read the following paragraph from “Amusing Ourselves to Death: Public Discourse in the Age of Show Business” and identify the literary devices used:

“In the Age of Show Business, public discourse increasingly resembles a perpetual carnival, a perpetual parade of entertainments that serve more to distract and amuse than to enlighten or inform. Our politics, news, religion, education, and even commerce have been transformed into congenial adjuncts of show business, largely without protest or even much popular notice. The result is that we are a people on the verge of amusing ourselves to death.”


  1. Metaphor – “Age of Show Business” and “a perpetual carnival” metaphorically describe the current era and the nature of public discourse, respectively, highlighting the transformation of serious societal functions into entertainment.
  2. Hyperbole – “on the verge of amusing ourselves to death” exaggerates the potential consequences of society’s preoccupation with entertainment, emphasizing the seriousness of the issue.
  3. Personification – Describing public discourse as “increasingly resembles a perpetual carnival” personifies the abstract concept, making it easier to visualize and understand the transformation discussed.
  4. Allusion – Although not directly citing specific events or figures, the paragraph alludes to the broader cultural and historical shift towards entertainment in various aspects of society, suggesting a deep-rooted change in values and practices.

This exercise helps illustrate how Postman uses literary devices to effectively argue his points, making complex ideas more accessible and engaging for the reader.